'Get Real'- Bridging the gap between secondary and tertiary

    Brynn Hibbert University of New South Wales Introduction A tertiary course in chemistry may be seen as a bridge between secondary school and the workplace. Starting a course at a university brings a student into contact with working chemists whose task is to not only add knowledge about the subject, but to give an awareness of what it means to be a...
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    The Discovery of Ventolin

    Peter O'Brien The University of York Asthma is a very common disease, affecting one person out of every 20. So, if you are not asthmatic, it is highly likely that you know someone who is. indeed, you have probably seen people using medication for asthma in the form of an inhaler. The usual symptoms of asthma are wheezing and breathlessness which ma...
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    Quinine - One of the Great Molecules

    C Ramsden Keele University Quinine belongs to the molecular elite. If chemical compounds won medals and prizes, quinine would be one of the most decorated molecules in the history of science. For over 300 years it has played a major role in chemistry and medicine and has not been associated with adverse properties such as addiction or toxicity. Bec...
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    On Track to the Olympic Games: Chemistry Giving the Winning Edge

    Dr Mark Holmes Central Queensland University 2012 is an exciting time for sports fans. From July 27 to August 12, all eyes will be on London, the host city of the Games of the XXX Olympiad. The 2012 Paralympic Games will follow from August 29 to September 9. Logistically, the staging of these Games is huge. The London Organising Committee of the Ol...
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    The Chemistry Behind the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Jolon Dyer University of Canterbury A mystery unveiled The year is 1990. the country the United States of America. A woman is brutally raped and murdered in her own home. Three men are linked to the crime through fraudulent use of the victims credit card the night before her death. Let's call these three men Mr. X, Mr. Y, and Mr. Z. One of these me...
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    Know Your Onions

    Subramaniam Sotheeswaran University of the South Pacific Onion is botanically described as Allium cepa and belongs to the plant family Lillaceae. It has been used as a spice for centuries. Onions are cooked, used raw in salads or used in flavouring foods. Three varieties of onions are known. They are the white, yellow or the red varieties and they ...
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    ICP-MS: A POWERFUL NEW ANALYTICAL TOOL FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF ALL STABLE ELEMENTS AND INDIVIDUAL NUCLIDES

    Barry N. Noller Environment Division, Department of Mines and Energy, GPO Box 2901 Darwin NT 0801 ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) is a hybrid analytical technique utilising a plasma atomisation source and a quadrupole mass spectrometer as detector. The specific feature of ICP-MS which makes it a unique technique is its capabil...
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    Sunscreens: Molecules That Absorb Ultraviolet Radiation

    Brian Wilkins Wearing hats and sitting under trees does not protect us from the significant amounts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reflected from most surfaces. We need extra protection in many situations. Chemistry has a role to play in providing harmless molecules that absorb UVR and dissipate its potentially dangerous energy into harmless longer...
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    A New Look at the Old Drug - Aspirin

    Dr. Eva Todoroska Charles Sturt University - Mitchell History of the discovery of aspirin The history of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) begins with common, folk herbal remedies that were used by early 18th century pharmacologists to reduce fever. Fever is symptomatic of many diseases. The bark of the willow tree (Salix alba) , meadowsweat plant (Sp...
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    Application of Basic Chemical Properties in Drug Design: The Development of Hypoxia-Selective Anticancer Drugs

    William A. Denny University of Auckland The first useful drugs were complex mixtures of compounds of unknown structure, extracted from natural sources (plants or animals), and resulted from chance observations of useful effects, probably backed up by trial and error experiments on humans over many generations. A therapeutic drug is now defined as a...
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    Artificial Sweeteners

    Maureen Prince University of Canterbury By far the most commonly used sweetener is sucrose, usually referred to as sugar Awareness of health hazards associated with a high-sugar diet has not been sufficient to overcome the human predilection for sweetness. To ameliorate these health problems while allowing people to indulge their liking of sweet th...
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    Malaria - A Growing Threat

    Graeme O'Neill Australia is certified free of malaria by the World Health Organisation, but elsewhere it is a killer. Australian researchers are currently working on a vaccine against malaria. Malaria is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. According to the World Health Organization, between 300 to 500 million people contrac...
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    The Ammonium Dichromate Volcano

    Description A small conical heap of orange ammonium dichromate is ignited. It sparks and produces a large volume of green chromium (III) oxide as well as steam, resembling a volcano. Apparatus Bunsen burner, heatproof mat. Metal tray such as a large tea tray. Watch glass. Bell jar (optional). One 1L conical flask (optional). One 250mL conical flask...
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    ITERATIONS: A GENERAL METHOD FOR SOLVING IONIC EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    Liberato Cardellini Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materialie della Terra Universita, Via Brecce Bianche 60131 Ancona, Italy INTRODUCTION An important part of every general chemistry curriculum is the treatment of ionic equilibrium problems in aqueous solution. In this topic, two important aspects of stoichiometric calculations are treated: 1) the con...
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    NSW Branch Nyholm Youth Lecture and SA Branch D.R. Stranks Memorial Youth Lecture - Oxygen, Life and Count Dracula

    Roy Tasker and Kris Basden University of Western Sydney, Nepean What colour is liquid oxygen? Is Bugs Bunny a vampire under treatment? Why does garlic keep Count Dracula away? Why is eating too much bacon and orange juice unhealthy? How can a submerged mouse breathe in liquid without drowning? Why do babies born to smokers weigh about 5% lighter th...
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    NSW Branch Nyholm Youth Lecture Oxygen - Friend or Foe?

    Peter Southwell-Keely University of New South Wales Introduction In this lecture I shall briefly summarise the history of the world from an oxygen point of view, say something of the discovery of oxygen, why we need it, its use as a chemotherapeutic agent and its toxicity. I shall then give some examples of reactions which demonstrate its reactivit...
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    IMMUNOSUPPRESSION IN TRANSPLANTATION

    Michael J.B. Moore University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800 Christchurch, New Zealand INTRODUCTION The kidney transplant has become both a routine and common practice over the latter half of the 20th century. The procedure has a high success rate reflecting the low risk involved in this operation relative to other more complex transplants such as ...
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    A COLOURFUL DEMONSTRATION OF THE HENDERSON-HASSELBALCH EQUATION

    M.A. HOOPER School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW,2006 The reaction of dry ice, CO 2 (s), with water or dilute sodium hydroxide solution has long been used to demonstrate the colours of universal indicator. The bubbling and clouds of condensing water vapour make it popular with students. By increasing the concentration of the sodium hydrox...
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    Chaos in Chemistry

    Jeff Hughes Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology The basis of modern Chaos theory is the search for underlying order in apparent randomness. The common idea of chaos is that of a system without any apparent pattern or order - out of control. This seems to imply that a system behaving this way has no underlying rules governing its behaviour. Ther...
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    The Leighton Address 1996 Cerebral Chemistry

    G. Johnston University of Sydney Chemistry is making many contributions to our increased understanding of brain function. Simple chemicals serve as neurotransmitters mediating the transfer of information between nerve cells by activating chemically complex receptors. All nerve cells in the brain have receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter, G...
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